- (1883-1969)philosopher; among the founders of existen-tialism. Born in Oldenburg in East Frisia, he studied law before taking a medical doctorate in 1909 at Heidelberg; he then worked at Heidelberg's psychiatric hospital as a research assistant. In 1913, after he published his masterful All-gemeine Psychopathologie (General psychopathology), he was appointed aus-serordentlicher Professor of psychology at Heidelberg. Just after World War I he wrote Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (Psychology of world views), a work heavily influenced by Wilhelm Dilthey and marking Jaspers's transition from medicine through psychiatry and psychology to philosophy. By proposing that scientific philosophy was illogical since no philosophical position could ever be universal, the book alienated Heidelberg's famous neo-Kantian, Heinrich Rickert.*Over Rickert's protests, Jaspers became full professor at Heidelberg in 1922. Shunned by the so-called Rickertkreis (Rickert Circle), he found fulfillment by polishing his ideas in lectures. After he attracted a wide student following, his isolation ended in 1932 with publication of Philosophie, his magnum opus. Consisting of three volumes, the work helped institute Existenzphilosophie (ex-istentialism) and established Jaspers as Heidelberg's premier logician. The NSDAP soon barred him from administrative appointment, proscribed his teach-ing in 1937, and then prohibited him from publishing in 1938. Ignoring con-ditions that others found intolerable, he used his isolation to prepare the first one-thousand-page volume of a projected three-volume exploration entitled Logik.Jaspers was prolific, if often unclear and repetitious. His ideas focused largely on individual reasoning and action, appealing to human endeavors reflective of an authentic self-identity. He believed that philosophy, rather than exalting an idealistic absolute, should support the individual in a unique and often-enigmatic quest. Like Kierkegaard, he distrusted the conformism associated with church and state, while, like Nietzsche, he defied those philosophers who served only as apologists for the status quo. Suspicious of society's overconfidence in sci-ence, he stressed man's irrationality as an antidote to too much positivism. Glo-rifying neither professionalism nor the latest fad, Jaspers extolled that which was great. "A single page from Plato or any great philosopher," he once argued in a lecture, "is worth more than all the writings of Kuno Fischer"—Fischer being one of the great historians of philosophy in the nineteenth century.REFERENCES:NDB, vol. 10; Wallraff, Karl Jaspers.
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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Jaspers, Karl — Karl Jaspers Karl Jaspers, né à Oldenburg le 23 février 1883 et mort à Bâle le 26 février 1969, est un psychiatre et philosophe allemand représentatif de l existentialisme chrétien. Ses travaux ont eu une grande influence sur… … Wikipédia en Français
Jaspers, Karl — ▪ German philosopher Introduction in full Karl Theodor Jaspers born Feb. 23, 1883, Oldenburg, Ger. died Feb. 26, 1969, Basel, Switz. German philosopher, one of the most important Existentialists in Germany, who approached the subject from man… … Universalium
Jaspers, Karl — (1883–1969) Jaspers was born in Oldenburg in northern Germany, studied law, qualified in medicine in 1908 at Heidelberg, then from 1908 to 1915 served as a part time assistant at the Heidelberg psychiatric clinic under Franz Nissl; he… … Historical dictionary of Psychiatry
Jaspers, Karl — (1883–1969) Philosopher. Jaspers was educated at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He stayed on at the university to teach until he was forced to resign by the Nazis. Although he was reinstated after the Second World War, he ended his… … Who’s Who in Christianity
Jaspers, Karl — (1883–1969) German existentialist theologian. Born in Oldenberg in Germany, Jaspers began his career as a medical student. From 1921 to 1937 he was professor of philosophy at Heidelberg, but was removed by the Nazis, and although reinstated in… … Philosophy dictionary
JASPERS, Karl — (1883 1973) German EXISTENTIALIST philosopher. Practiced in psychiatry and then moved via psychology to philosophy, finally accepting a professorship at Heidelberg in 1921. He was ousted from his post during the Nazi era but returned after the … Concise dictionary of Religion
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Jaspers, Karl — ► (1883 1969) Filósofo alemán. Iniciador de la filosofía existencial alemana. Su primera obra importante, Psicopatología general (1913), ofreció una nueva clasificación de las enfermedades mentales. Su concepto de la existencia se basa en un… … Enciclopedia Universal
Jaspers, Karl (Theodor) — born Feb. 23, 1883, Oldenburg, Ger. died Feb. 26, 1969, Basel, Switz. German Swiss philosopher and psychiatrist. As a research psychiatrist, he helped establish psychopathology on a rigorous, scientifically descriptive basis, especially in his… … Universalium
Jaspers, Karl Theodor — (1883 1969) The most famous German existentialist after Heidegger, Jaspers, who started out in medicine before turning to philosophy, distanced himself from his illustrious predecessor. His magnum opus was the three volume Philosophy (1932),… … Christian Philosophy